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Basic Standards


IECEN 61000-3-2

IECEN 61000-3-3

IECEN 61000-3-11

IECEN 61000-3-12

Harmonics are “non-linear” Currents or Voltages in an electrical distribution system, caused by non-linear loads (i.e. loads that draw current with a waveform that is not the same as that of the supply voltage).

Typical devices that cause harmonics are motor driven equipment, domestic appliances (TVs, microwave ovens, lighting equipment and dimmers), and office equipment (PCs, printers).

The IEC standards that deal with Harmonics are IEC 61000-3-2 for products <16 A/phase, and IEC 61000-3-12 for products <75 A/phase.

Typical equipment for Harmonics measurement should include a pure AC power source, and a Harmonics analyzing system.

Flicker is caused by rapid power supply voltage fluctuations, which results in light luminance fluctuation. Limiting flicker is achieved by limiting the voltage variations generated across a reference load.

The IEC standards that deal with flicker are IEC 61000-3-3 and IEC 61000-3-11.

The basic instrumentation used to measure flicker has the same characteristics as the harmonics analyzer, and therefore the same type of test equipment is used. However, what needs to be added to the configuration is a reference impedance, or Flicker impedance, in order to simulate the resistance and inductance of the low voltage distribution systems. Another main difference is in the measurement, as the voltage across the point of supply is measured, rather than the current drawn by it.

IECEN 61000-4-2

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) tests are used to verify complete systems and duplicate disturbances in installations. These tests contribute to identify immunity failures caused by bad cabling or system composition, as well as grounding problems.

The standard IEC 61000-4-2 explains in detail the different test setups depending on the EUT (ie table top equipment, floor standing equipment, grounded or un-grounded equipment).

IEC 61000-4-2 defines a Test Generator (ESD simulator), with a discharge resistor (330 Ω) and a discharge capacitor (150 pF). There are four test levels for air and contact discharge:

Contact discharge: 2, 4, 6, 8 k. Air discharge: 2, 4, 8, 15 kV

IECEN 61000-4-4

A burst arises when a mechanical contact is open. Due to the switching process, an arc occurs.

Sources are circuit breakers in electrical circuits, high voltage switchgear, 110/230 V power supply systems, 24 V control lines.

A burst has a single pulse rise time/duration of 5 ns/50 ns from a source impedance of 50 Ω. Bursts of 15 ms duration with a repetition rate of 5 kHz (or 100 kHz) are applied every 300 ms.

The standard defines four basic test levels, all with repetition frequencies 5 or 100 kHz.

The level voltage depends on equipment being tested:

Power ports: 0.5 , 1, 2, 4 kV

Signal and control ports: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 kV

IECEN 61000-4-5

High energy transients are generally a result of lightning strikes. Lightning can produce surges with energies of several joules by the following mechanisms:direct strike to primary or secondary circuits indirect cloud-to-ground or cloud-to-cloud strikes create fields which induce voltages in all conductors ground current flow from nearby cloud-to-ground discharges couples into the grounding network via common impedance paths IEC 61000-4-5 defines two Combination Wave pulses (Open Circuit Voltage and Short Circuit Current). The most common combination wave test is the 1.2/50 & 8/20, and the second is the 10/700 & 5/320, commonly known as telecom wave.

There are four basic test levels, independent of EUT: 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kV (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 kA)

IECEN 61000-4-11

A voltage dip is a decrease of mains voltage, an interruption is a breakdown of mains voltage, and a variation is a continuous change of mains voltage.

Dips & Interrupts are caused by faults in the power network, the installation or by sudden large change of load, while voltage variations (optional by the standard) are caused by continuous varying loads connected to the power network. The standard IEC 61000-4-11 defines immunity test methods and test levels for testing equipment connected to low-voltage power supply networks. It applies to equipment having a rated input current not exceeding 16 A/phase, for connection to 50 or 60 Hz AC networks.

IEC 61000-4-29 applies to voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations on DC input power port.

IECEN 61000-4-12

This type interference is induced in low-voltage cables due to the switching of electrical networks and reactive loads.The ring wave has a defined 0.5 us rise time and 100 kHz oscillation frequency. This typical impulse is widely used for testing products related to power distribution and railway applications.

IECEN 61000-4-14

The IEC 61000-4-14 is aimed at testing a product for immunity against voltage fluctuations that can occur on the public utility. The nature of the voltage fluctuations is different from those tested under IEC 61000-4-11 however. The fluctuations covered in this standard are less severe and involve typical high and low line conditions.

The Teseq ProfLine system supports full compliance IEC 61000-4-14 testing. The IEC 61000-4-14 test is implemented in the WIN 2110 or WIN 2110II Windows software. To accommodate changes in the specification, test levels and duration can be changed by the operator or loaded from disk if needed.

IECEN 61000-4-17

IEC 61000-4-17 is aimed at testing a DC powered product for immunity against voltage ripple. Ripple is often caused by feed-through from the AC input section of a DC supply and exhibits itself as a small AC signal riding on the DC output. The IEC 61000-4-17 standards covers test levels and frequencies for testing the immunity of DC products against such phenomena.

The Teseq ProfLine system supports full compliance IEC 61000-4-17 testing. The IEC 61000-4-17 test is implemented in the WIN 2110 or WIN 2110II Windows software. To accommodate changes in the specification, test levels and duration can be changed by the operator or loaded from disk if needed.

IECEN 61000-4-27

Teseq three phase ProfLine systems support pre-compliance IEC 61000-4-27 testing. The IEC 61000-4-27 test is implemented in the WIN 2110 OR WIN 2110II Windows software. To accommodate changes in the specification, test levels and duration can be changed by the operator or loaded from disk if needed.

IECEN 61000-4-28

The Teseq ProfLine system supports full compliance IEC 61000-4-28 testing. The IEC 61000-4-28 test is implemented in the WIN 2110 OR WIN 2110II Windows software. To accommodate changes in the specification, test levels and duration can be changed by the operator or loaded from disk if needed.

IECEN 61000-4-29

A voltage dip is a decrease of mains voltage, an interruption is a breakdown of mains voltage, and a variation is a continuous change of mains voltage. Dips & Interrupts are caused by faults in the power network, the installation or by sudden large change of load, while voltage variations (optional by the standard) are caused by continuous varying loads connected to the power network.

The standard IEC 61000-4-11 defines immunity test methods and test levels for testing equipment connected to low-voltage power supply networks. It applies to equipment having a rated input current not exceeding 16 A/phase, for connection to 50 or 60 Hz AC networks. IEC 61000-4-29 applies to voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations on DC input power port.