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Glossary

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  • A

    • Atmospheric discharges such as lightning

      Lightning strokes into high voltage power distribution systems are causing transients in low voltage power mains networks. Via coupling these transients can also be detected in data bus systems, I/O lines and any cabling in the industrial area.

      Parameters : Range of voltage some tens of kilovolts, range of current some tens of kilo amps, high-energy pulses with rise times in the microsecond range.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-4-5 

  • C

    • Conducted Disturbances

      Conducted radio-frequency disturbance occurs from intended rf transmitters affecting cables such as mains supply lines, signal lines or earth connections between different parts of an electrical or electronic systems.

      Parameters : The interference signal is a an amplitude modulated or pulse modulated signal, typically in the frequency range between 9kHz and 80MHz, sometimes extended to 230MHz.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-4-6 

    • CR
      testing
  • E

    • Electrical fast transients (burst)

      Electromagnetic influences produced in the neighborhood by rapid variation of voltage and current as a result of the abrupt change of a switch from a non-conductive to a fully conductive status or vice versa, e.g. switching inductive loads with mechanically moved contacts between which arcing occurs before they separate.

      Parameters : Broad-band pulse interference, rise time of pulses of a few nanoseconds, small energy content and high repetition rate.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-4-4 

    • Electrostatic discharge

      ESD occurs when the static electric field between two objects exceeds the dielectric strength of the air between them. The discharge is a complex event involving a local transfer of charge at the point of discharge, electromagnetic near field coupling between the objects involved, induced current flow in the object receiving the discharge and radiated electromagnetic energy from the charged object as well as from the arc of the discharge. All of these phenomenon are capable of causing malfunctions and, in some cases, damage in electronic equipment.

      Parameters : The major effects are generated by the discharge current (< 100A) and voltage (< 30kV) with rise times in the nanosecond and even in the picosecond range.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-4-2 

  • G

    • Ground shift tests

      Ground shift tests are immunity tests whereby potential interference from conducted noise along a ESC’s power and signal grounds. This could be caused by faulty earthing or other coupling methods. One method usually used is coupling via a transformer, but the individual standards must be consulted to determine the recommended method. The NSG 5600 contains the necessary transformer.

  • H

    • Harmonic Current Emission

      With an increasing number of electronic power supplies used in a wide range of products the aim to limit the harmonic current emission has become more and more important. It is a specific interest of the power distribution companies to keep the harmonic current emission to a considerable low level as harmonic current causes unnecessary loading of the power distribution infrastructure. This again may affect both quality and reliability of the power supply.

      Parameters : Harmonic currents are measured up to the 40th harmonic of the fundamental. Limits for each harmonic are specified depending on the type of product.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-3-2, IEC/EN 61000-3-12 

  • I

    • Inverter noise

      Depending on the coupling path, inverter noise can manifest itself in ripple on the power to certain DUTs that may be susceptible the the disturbance.

  • P

    • Power Mains supply failures

      Voltage dips and short interruptions are caused by faults in the network, in installations or by a sudden large change of load. In certain cases, two or more consecutive dips or interruptions may occur. Voltage variations are caused by continuously varying loads connected to the mains supply network.

      Parameters : These phenomena are random in nature and can be characterized in terms of the deviation from the rated voltage and duration.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-4-11 

  • R

    • RF Power Amplifiers

      RF Power Amplifiers are used to convert a low-power radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power. AMETEK-CTS Microwave and RF Power Amplifiers use this theory for driving the antenna of a transmitter. RF Power Amplifiers are optimized to have high efficiency, high output Power(P1dB) compression, good return loss on the input and output, good gain, and optimum heat dissipation.

      Microwave and RF Power Amplifier applications include EW and EMC lab testing.

  • S

    • Solid State

      Solid-state circuits are built entirely from solid materials and in which the electrons, or other charge carriers, are confined entirely within the solid material.

      AMETEK-CTS solid-state RF microwave amplifier products include Solid-state broadband amplifiers, Solid-state wideband amplifiers, Solid-state power amplifiers, Solid-state amplifier modules and Solid-state amplifier Systems. These products incorporate GaN (gallium nitride) and

      LMOS devices in the advanced solid-state amplifier designs.

    • Switching inductive or capacitive loads

      Switching heavy inductive or capacitive loads in low voltage power mains supply systems are causing transients of high energy and high voltage, depending on the installation category.

      Parameters :
      Range of voltage some up to tens of kilovolts, range of current some tens of kilo amps, high-energy pulses with rise time and duration in the microsecond range.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-4-5 

    • Switching processes

      Switching processes often manifest themselves in damaging pulses and voltage dips in both automotive and household applications.

  • T

    • TWT - Traveling Wave Tube

      TWT (traveling wave tube) is an electronic device used to amplify microwave radio frequency (RF) signals to higher power levels. This product is known as a traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA).

      The AMETEK-CTS brand IFI has been using TWT's in thier TWTA's since 1953 and have the most extensive line of testing amplifiers and amplifier systems on the market today.

      IFI TWT Amplifiers are offered as narrow and broad band laboratory units or as part of EW, EMI (electro magnetic interference) and ECM testing, simulator or communications systems.

    • TWTA - Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier

      RF Microwave TWTAs are designed around a TWT (traveling wave tube),  integrated with a regulated power supply, control and protection circuits. These microwave TWTA test instruments are used to produce high-power radio frequency (RF) signals. IFI TWTA: CW, Pulsed, Gridded, Millimeter, Combination, Broadband and Wideband are available in High, Medium and low power levels and cover a wide selection of frequencies.

  • V

    • Vehicle motor start

      The starter motor in a motor vehicle is a huge load for the electrical system. This test is required for e-marking, ISO 16750-2 and every vehicle manufacturer - sometimes dozens to thousands of variations. This simulation is most commonly called Pulse 4 from ISO 7637-2:2004.

      The NSG 5600 and a battery simulator is designed exactly for this type of requirement.

    • Voltage changes, voltage fluctuation and flicker

      During an entire duty-cycle of a product sudden voltage changes, voltage fluctuations or flicker might occur. This may effect the quality of the mains supply voltage. Flicker can be visually recognized as the illumination strength of a lamp may drop significantly even for a very short time. To keep such phenomenon to the minimum limits have been introduced for the impact of load variations to the public mains supply network.

      Standard reference : IEC/EN 61000-3-3, IEC/EN 61000-3-11

    • Voltage variations

      Voltage variations are any kind of change to a stable 12 V electrical system. They included tests like dips and drops, Pulse 4 (motor starting pulse) and many others.

      The NSG 5600 was designed to be used in conjunction with one (or more) of our battery simulators for these types of tests.

  • Z

    • z
      chaitra